Humour is often used to make light of difficult or stressful situations and to brighten up a social atmosphere in general. It is regarded by many as an enjoyable and positive experience, so it would be reasonable to assume that it humour might have some positive physiological effects on the body.
A study designed to test the positive physiological effects of humour, the relationship between being exposed to humour and pain tolerance in particular, was conducted in by Karen Zwyer, Barbara Velker, and Willibald Ruch. To test the effects of humour on pain tolerance the test subjects were first exposed to a short humorous video clip and then exposed to the cold pressor test.
To identify the aspects of humour which might contribute to an increase in pain tolerance the study separated its fifty-six female participants into three groups, cheerfulness, exhilaration and humour production. The subjects were further separated into two groups, high Trait-Cheerfulness and high Trait-Seriousness according to the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory.
The instructions for the three groups were as follows: the cheerfulness group were told to get excited about the movie without laughing or smiling, the exhilaration group was told to laugh and smile excessively, exaggerating their natural reactions, the humour production group was told to make humorous comments about the video clip as they watched. To ensure that the participants actually found the movie humorous and that it produced the desired effects the participants took a survey on the topic which resulted in a mean score of 3. The results of the Cold Press Test showed that the participants in all three groups experienced a higher pain threshold, a higher pain tolerance and a lower pain tolerance than previous to the film.
The results did not show a significant difference between the three groups. There are also potential relationships between humour and having a healthy immune system. SIgA is a type of antibody that protects the body from infections. In a method similar to the previous experiment, the participants were shown a short humorous video clip and then tested for the effects.
The participants showed a significant increase in SIgA levels. There have been claims that laughter can be a supplement for cardiovascular exercise and might increase muscle tone. The cardiovascular benefits of laughter also seem to be just a figment of imagination as a study that was designed to test oxygen saturation levels produced by laughter, showed that even though laughter creates sporadic episodes of deep breathing, oxygen saturation levels are not affected. As humour is often used to ease tension, it might make sense that the same would be true for anxiety.
The study subject were told that they would be given to an electric shock after a certain period of time. One group was exposed to humorous content, while the other was not. The anxiety levels were measured through self-report measures as well as the heart rate.
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Subjects which rated high on sense of humour reported less anxiety in both groups, while subjects which rated lower on sense of humour reported less anxiety in the group which was exposed to the humorous material. However, there was not a significant difference in the heart rate between the subjects. Humour is a ubiquitous, highly ingrained, and largely meaningful aspect of human experience and is therefore decidedly relevant in organisational contexts, such as the workplace.
The significant role that laughter and fun play in organisational life has been seen as a sociological phenomenon and has increasingly been recognised as also creating a sense of involvement among workers. Humour may also be used to offset negative feelings about a workplace task or to mitigate the use of profanity, or other coping strategies, that may not be otherwise tolerated.
Managers may use self-deprecating humour as a way to be perceived as more human and "real" by their employees. Laughter and play can unleash creativity , thus raising morale , so in the interest of encouraging employee consent to the rigours of the labour process, management often ignore, tolerate and even actively encourage playful practices, with the purpose of furthering organisational goals. One of the main focuses of modern psychological humour theory and research is to establish and clarify the correlation between humour and laughter.
The major empirical findings here are that laughter and humour do not always have a one-to-one association. While most previous theories assumed the connection between the two almost to the point of them being synonymous, psychology has been able to scientifically and empirically investigate the supposed connection, its implications, and significance.lovelypets.mx/images
On humour (Book, ) [ningrickicarra.gq]
In , Diana Szameitat conducted a study to examine the differentiation of emotions in laughter. They hired actors and told them to laugh with one of four different emotional associations by using auto-induction, where they would focus exclusively on the internal emotion and not on the expression of laughter itself.
This brings into question the definition of humour, then. If it is to be defined by the cognitive processes which display laughter, then humour itself can encompass a variety of negative as well as positive emotions. However, if humour is limited to positive emotions and things which cause positive affect, it must be delimited from laughter and their relationship should be further defined.
Humour has shown to be effective for increasing resilience in dealing with distress and also effective in undoing negative affects. Madeljin Strick, Rob Holland, Rick van Baaren, and Ad van Knippenberg of Radboud University conducted a study that showed the distracting nature of a joke on bereaved individuals. Their findings showed that humorous therapy attenuated the negative emotions elicited after negative pictures and sentences were presented. In addition, the humour therapy was more effective in reducing negative affect as the degree of affect increased in intensity. The escapist nature of humour as a coping mechanism suggests that it is most useful in dealing with momentary stresses.
Stronger negative stimuli requires a different therapeutic approach. Humour is an underlying character trait associated with the positive emotions used in the broaden-and-build theory of cognitive development.
Studies, such as those testing the undoing hypothesis ,  : have shown several positive outcomes of humour as an underlying positive trait in amusement and playfulness. Several studies have shown that positive emotions can restore autonomic quiescence after negative affect. Using humour judiciously can have a positive influence on cancer treatment. Humour can serve as a strong distancing mechanism in coping with adversity. In Kelter and Bonanno found that Duchenne laughter correlated with reduced awareness of distress. A distancing of thought leads to a distancing of the unilateral responses people often have to negative arousal.
In parallel with the distancing role plays in coping with distress, it supports the broaden and build theory that positive emotions lead to increased multilateral cognitive pathway and social resource building. Humour has been shown to improve and help the ageing process in three areas. The areas are improving physical health, improving social communications, and helping to achieve a sense of satisfaction in life.
Studies have shown that constant humour in the ageing process gives health benefits to individuals. Such benefits as higher self-esteem , lower levels of depression , anxiety , and perceived stress , and a more positive self-concept as well as other health benefits which have been recorded and acknowledged through various studies. Another way that research indicates that humour helps with the ageing process, is through helping the individual to create and maintain strong social relationship during transitory periods in their lives.
With this transition certain social interactions with friend and family may be limited forcing the individual to look else where for these social interactions. Humour has been shown to make transitions easier, as humour is shown reduce stress and facilitate socialisation and serves as a social bonding function. These new social interactions can be critical for these transitions in their lives and humour will help these new social interactions to take place making these transitions easier.
Philosophy of Humor
Humour can also help ageing individuals maintain a sense of satisfaction in their lives. Through the ageing process many changes will occur, such as losing the right to drive a car. This can cause a decrease in satisfaction in the lives of the individual. Humour helps to alleviate this decrease of satisfaction by allowing the humour to release stress and anxiety caused by changes in the individuals life. In an article published in Nature Reviews Neuroscience , it is reported that a study's results indicate that humour is rooted in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex.
The study states, in part:. Humour can be verbal, visual, or physical. Non-verbal forms of communication—for example, music or visual art—can also be humorous. Rowan Atkinson explains in his lecture in the documentary Funny Business  that an object or a person can become funny in three ways:. Most sight gags fit into one or more of these categories. Some theoreticians of the comic consider exaggeration to be a universal comic device.
There are many taxonomies of humor; the following is used to classify humorous tweets in Rayz Different cultures have different typical expectations of humour so comedy shows are not always successful when transplanted into another culture. For example, a BBC News article discusses a stereotype among British comedians that Americans and Germans do not understand irony , and therefore UK sitcoms are not appreciated by them. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.